Although more than 800,000 children are reported missing each year, the majority of them are runaways or have been taken by a parent or relative.
An Amber Alert is a notice to the community about a child who has potentially been kidnapped. Notices are distributed by television, radio, the Internet, and highway signs, to notify the public when a child is abducted. People who choose may be able to sign up to receive notice by pager, text message or cellular phones. An Amber Alert notice provides details about the abducted child and, when possible, information about a suspect's vehicle.
The advantage of the Code Amber system is that shortly after a suspected kidnapping, thousands of motorists will be on notice with information about the suspect, and can notify the police with their observations of any suspicious vehicles or activity. As more than seventy percent of children who are killed by their kidnappers are murdered within three hours of their disappearance, prompt and effective action can be crucial. This system is credited with the rescue of a number of children, including a two-year-old Texas girl who was returned to her mother after her father took her away at gunpoint.
The Amber Alert system is named after Amber Hagerman, a nine-year-old Texas girl who was kidnapped in 1996, while riding her bicycle in her neighborhood. Four days later, she was found dead. "AMBER" is now an acronym for "America's Missing Broadcast Emergency Response".
A Code Adam alert is a notification distributed through a building in which a child is discovered to be missing, that triggers a system to secure the premises and to start a systematic search for the missing child. A description of the child is relayed to individuals throughout the organization, who monitor doors and parking lots to make sure that no child matching the description wanders out alone, or is removed from the premises by an inappropriate person. Many governments have enacted Code Adam alert systems for public buildings, and many major retailers and public venues have similarly created Code Adam systems.
Although there is some dispute as to the origin of the name, the most common account is that Code Adam alerts are named after six-year-old Adam Walsh, who was murdered following his abduction from a shopping mall in 1981. Adam's father, John Walsh, subsequently advocated for better police response in kidnapping cases, and later hosted the television series, "America's Most Wanted" and "The Hunt With John Walsh".
Obviously, there is great advantage in creating a system which prevents a kidnapping from being successfully completed, and that is the ultimate goal of the Code Adam system.
A potential downside to public alert systems comes from the possibility of their overuse. Just like the story of "The Boy Who Cried Wolf", if the public becomes accustomed to Amber Alerts or Code Adam Alerts to the point of ignoring the information, people may not respond to them. Also, the alert must include sufficient useful information about the child or suspect to make helpful the involvement of the public. On the other hand, delaying an alert or hesitating to issue an alert based upon concerns of overuse may cause the systems to become ineffective in cases where they might help rescue a child.
To help avoid problems with overuse and underuse, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children has created criteria for the police to use when screening a report of a missing child for possible use of the Amber Alert system, including:
Law enforcement has confirmed that a child has been abducted;
The law enforcement agency believes that the circumstances surrounding the abduction indicate that the child is in danger of serious bodily harm or death; and
There is enough descriptive information about the child, suspected abductor, and/or the suspect's vehicle to believe that an immediate broadcast alert will help.
There is also a cost associated with equipment and training associated with the Amber Alert system, although most people find the cost acceptable.
There are fewer potential problems with a "Code Adam"-type system, as the system is more likely to involve store or government employees as opposed to members of the public. When Code Adam systems are in place, employees typically receive training in an established procedure, permitting a prompt and systematic response to the report of of a missing child.