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Alabama Medical Malpractice Law - An Overview

Important Notice: The following overview of Alabama's medical malpractice laws is presented on an as-is basis. This information is believed accurate as of the date of authorship, but is not intended to provide a complete analysis of medical malpractice law and may not reflect subsequent changes in the law. For a full review of Alabama's medical malpractice law, or for a determination of how the law applies to a specific incident or injury, please consult a malpractice lawyer licensed to practice in the state of Alabama.


What Is Medical Malpractice

Medical malpractice, sometimes referred to as medical negligence, occurs when a health care provider violates the governing standard of care when providing treatment to a patient, causing the patient to suffer an injury. Medical malpractice can result from an action taken by the medical practitioner, or by the failure to take a medically appropriate action. Examples of medical malpractice include:

  • Misdiagnosis of, or failure to diagnose , a disease or medical condition;
  • Failure to provide appropriate treatment for a medical condition;
  • Unreasonable delay in treating a diagnosed medical condition;

Medical malpractice actions can be brought by the injured patient against any responsible licensed health care provider, including doctors, counselors, psychologists and psychotherapists.

Limits on Malpractice Damages

Although the Alabama legislature attempted to limit damages in malpractice cases, the state courts have held the damages caps to be unconstitutional.

Collateral Source Rule

Under a traditional collateral source rule, a defendant may not seek to reduce its liability by introducing evidence that the plaintiff has received compensation from other sources, such as the plaintiff's own insurance coverage. For medical malpractice cases in California, there is a discretionary offset for compensation received from collateral sources, and a jury may be informed that the plaintiff has received compensation from a third party.

Rules for Expert Witnesses

Expert witnesses must be licensed to practice in the same speciality as the defendant, and must have practiced within their field of medicine within the past year.

Joint and Several Liability

Under the rule of joint and several liability, where more than one defendant is found liable for the injury suffered by a plaintiff, each defendant is individually liable for the entire amount of the judgment, such that if one defendant is unable to pay the other defendant or defendants are liable for the entire amount of the judgment.

Statute of Limitations

Medical malpractice actions must be commenced within 2 years or, if not immediately discovered, within six months of the date the injury was or should ahve been discovered. Medical malpractice actions may not be filed more than four years after the date of the act or omission giving rise to the injury. For minors, all actions must be brought within four years regardless of the age of the victim, unless the victim is less than four years old in which case the action may be filed at any time before the victim's eighth birthday.

Limits on Attorney Fees

Alabama does not limit attorney fees in medical malpractice cases.

Additional Rules

The parties may voluntarily attempt to resolve their dispute through arbitration. An agreement to arbitrate must be in writing and signed by both parties.

Where future damages are awarded in an amount in excess of $150,000.00, Alabama law requires that the damages be paid in installments.

Why Use A Malpractice Lawyer

Medical malpractice law is a highly technical field of law, and malpractice lawsuits tend to be fiercely defended by well-funded defense firms.

Medical malpractice lawsuits can be exceptionally expensive to pursue, with costs often exceeding $100,000.00. Due to the technical skills involved in prosecuting a malpractice claim, the possibility that an inexperienced lawyer may not be sufficiently conversant with the medical issues, or might make a technical error which causes a case to be lost or dismissed, and the very high costs the malpractice law firm typically must advance, an injured patient is very well served by going with a specialist firm.

Even within the specialized practice of medical malpractice law, you will find that some lawyers have subspecialties of practice, for example focusing on surgical errors, misdiagnosis, or birth trauma cases.