South Carolina Statute of Limitations for Civil and Personal Injury Litigation


What is a Statute of Limitations

A statute of limitations is a law that places a time limit on pursuing a legal remedy in relation to wrongful conduct. After the expiration of the statutory period, unless a legal exception applies, the injured person loses the right to file a lawsuit seeking money damages or other relief.

Although people often speak of the statute of limitations,in fact there are many statutes which apply limitations periods to civil actions. Sometimes it can be difficult to keep track of the various statutes and their exceptions. Thus it is a very good idea for somebody who is concerned about losing their right to sue as a result of the expiration of the statutory limitations period to consult with a qualified lawyer, who can help determine which statute applies, and help preserve the right to recover damages.

Limitations Periods for Legal Actions

The following periods represent a small sample of the statutory limitations periods in South Carolina.

Professional Malpractice: Actions for medical malpractice must be commenced within 3 years of the act or omission giving rise to the injury, or 3 years from the date the injury was or reasonably should have been discovered. Medical malpractice actions for the presence of a foreign object inside the body may be filed within the initial three year period, or within two years of discovery. No medical malpractice action may be filed more than six years from the date of the underlying act or omission regardless of the date of discovery.

Personal Injury: 3 years.

Fraud: 3 years.

Libel / Slander / Defamation: 2 years.

Injury to Personal Property: 3 years.

Product Liability: 3 years.

Contracts: Written and under seal, 20 years. Otherwise, 3 years.

Wrongful Death: 3 years.

Please note that it may be possible to bring multiple causes of action from a single incident of wrongful conduct, and thus even if it appears that the relevant statute of limitations has run it may remain possible to bring a different claim. Also, there may be an exception to the standard limitations period that applies to any given situation. The statutes summarized in this article are offered by way of example and the calculation of the limitations period can be significantly more complicated than a mere number suggests. If you wish to know how the statute of limitations applies to a specific situation, you should verify the statutory time period and its relevance to your situation with a qualified South Carolina lawyer.

What is a Statute of Repose

A statute of repose is different from a statute of limitations, in that after the statutory period has expired it is not possible to file a lawsuit even if an injury occurs after that time. For example, South Carolina has an eight year statute of repose for claims of damage or injury resulting from improvements to real property, starting from the date of substantial completion of the improvement.

Accrual of a Claim

A statute of limitations is said to start running at the time a claim accrues. Ordinarily, that is the time at which an injury is suffered.

The Discovery Rule

Sometimes it is not reasonably possible for a person to discover the cause of an injury, or even to know that an injury has occurred, until considerably after the act which causes the injury. For example, an error in the drafting of a will might not be noticed until the will is being executed, decades after it was drafted, or a financial planner's embezzlement might not be noticed for years due to the issuance of false statements of account.

When it applies, the discovery rule permits a suit to be filed within a certain period of time after the injury is or reasonably should have been discovered. The discovery rule does not apply to all civil injuries, and sometimes the period of time for bringing a claim post-discovery can be short, so it is important to seek legal assistance quickly in the event of the late discovery of an injury.

Tolling of the Statute of Limitations

In addition to late discovery, it may be possible to avoid the harsh result of a statute of limitation by arguing that the statute has been "tolled". When it is said that a statute is "tolled", it means that something has stopped the statute from running for a period of time. Typical reasons for tolling a statute of limitations include minority (the victim of the injury was a minor at the time the injury occurred), mental incompetence (the victim of the injury was not mentally competent at the time the injury occurred), and the defendant's bankruptcy (the "automatic stay" in bankruptcy ordinarily tolls the statute of limitations until such time as the bankruptcy is resolved or the stay is lifted).

Under South Carolina law, except in cases of medical malpractice, a minor has one year from the date of his or her eighteenth birthday to file suit. For medical malpractice actions, the statute of limitations may not be tolled more than seven years after the date of the act or omission giving rise to the claim, or one year after the minor's eighteenth birthday, whichever is less. For persons under legal disability such as mental incompetence, the statute of limitations runs from the removal of the disability, with a maximum toll of five years.

Contractual Limitations on Litigation

It is often possible to shorten a statutory limitations period by contract. For example, an employment contract might require that any claim relating to the employment relationship, including wrongful termination, be filed within one year of the claimed wrongful conduct. Courts often uphold these clauses, particularly in the context of business transactions, even though they provide for a shorter limitations period than the statute of limitations would otherwise apply.

Copyright © 2004 Aaron Larson, All rights reserved. No portion of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright holder. If you use a quotation, excerpt or paraphrase of this article, except as otherwise authorized in writing by the author of the article you must cite this article as a source for your work and include a link back to the original article from any online materials that incorporate or are derived from the content of this article.

This article was first published on Jul 1, 2004, and was last reviewed or amended on May 28, 2015.